An organic molecule naturally occurring in the food supply, PQQ is the first new vitamin discovered since 1948 and has been proposed to be classified as a new B vitamin.. It supports the health and increases production of mitochondria, which generate the energy cells need to function efficiently.*
Because the degradation of mitochondria is a key contributing factor to physiological aging in humans, PQQ may:
- Slow the aging process*
- Increase energy levels*
- Improve cognitive function*
- Alleviate occasional stress and sleeplessness*
- Improve cardiovascular function*
- Improve endurance*
- Speed recovery*
- Improve skin*
PQQ supplementation at levels higher than what is found in food has positive effects on cognitive function, immune status, antioxidant status, cardiovascular health, and neurological function. PQQ was found to improve not only immediate memory, but also other higher brain functions such as spatial awareness. The effects of PQQ were enhanced when the substance was used with CoQ10. Researchers found that PQQ taken either alone or in combination with CoQ10 has the potential to prevent, or even reverse, the decline in cognitive function caused by the aging process and oxidative stress.
Micro Calibrated PQQ-SR is a dietary supplement that features MicroPQQ®, a patented form of PQQ. In 2010, MicroPQQ® was recognized by the highly prestigious Nutracon “Best New Finished Product of the Year” award. MicroPQQ® has been used in all of the human clinical studies on PQQ published to date and is the only natural NDI-accepted PQQ on the market. In 2013, MicroPQQ® won the Engredea Editors’ Choice Award for Ingredient with the Best Science.
Mechanism of ActionDouble-blind, placebo-controlled human studies have found PQQ improves memory, spatial awareness, and concentration by facilitating nerve regeneration and enhancing nerve growth factor (a protein that promotes the growth, maintenance, and survival of nerve cells).
PQQ helps mitochondria increase in numbers and efficiency so they can help brain cells function more efficiently. The increased synthesis of mitochondria is caused by the activation of two proteins that regulate the expression of genes and the formation of mitochondria:.
PQQ is a safe, naturally occurring essential nutrient found in foods such as kiwi, green peppers, potatoes, tofu and green tea. Micro Calibrated PQQ-SR has been the subject of numerous safety studies, including acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies, in both humans and animals.
Further in Depth Description
PQQ has been reported to function as an antioxidant and redox modulator in cell culture experiments and in animal models of human diseases. For example, PQQ was an effective antioxidant protecting mitochondria against oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation and inactivation of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In its reduced form, PQQ exerted greater protection than alphatocopherol (vitamin E) toward the galvinoxyl and peroxyl free radicals, and appeared to have synergistic activity with vitamin E as an antioxidant. Additionally, PQQ is capable of carrying out 20,000 catalytic conversions as an antioxidant, compared to only four for vitamin C.
Cardiac Ischemic Protection
PQQ may be helpful when there is insufficient blood flow to the heart (cardiac ischemia), and it helps protect against oxidative stress in heart muscle cells. The result is less cardiac damage and a reduced incidence of ventricular fibrillation (i.e., abnormal quivering of the heart muscle rather than proper contraction). In animal research, PQQ administration reduced infarct size (i.e., tissue death) in cardiac ischemia, and also protected mitochondria from oxidative damage. Conclusion Whether it achieves recognition as a vitamin, PQQ is an interesting biochemical with an apparent role to play in human health and wellness. To date, published research has been largely limited to laboratory (in vitro) and animal research, with only one unpublished human study cited. PQQ will likely gain more prominence within the scientific community as additional human research is undertaken.
Amyloids are fibrous proteins with
improper structures. They erroneously
interact with one another or other cell
components, resulting in the formation
of fibrils (i.e, fine fibers). Amyloids are
associated with the pathology of many
human diseases, including Alzheimer’s
disease and other neurodegenerative
disorders. In animal research, PQQ was
shown to inhibit the amyloid fibril formation
of the amyloid protein, beta
amyloid (the major amyloid implicated
in Alzheimer’s) and dramatically inhibit
mouse prion protein. The researchers
concluded that PQQ has potential to
become a leading anti-neurodegenerative
compound in the treatment of
neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, beta amyloid has been
shown to cause neurotoxicity in
Alzheimer’s disease by evoking a cascade
of oxidative damage to neurons.
In laboratory research, PQQ was shown
to help protect against this type of
oxidative damage and subsequent neurotoxicity
caused by beta amyloid. In 2007, a human double-blind,
placebo-controlled clinical trial was
Redox refers to reactions in the
body in which a molecule or atom
has lost an electron (oxidation) or
gained an electron (reduction). This
is the process that generates free
radication (oxidation) and quenches
them with antioxidants (reduction).
Redox reactions are also involved in
the oxidation of glucose in the
human body through a series of
complex electron transfer processes,
ultimately yielding ATP (the energy
“currency” of the body).
A clinical trial was conducted in Japan using PQQ.
Seventy-one subjects between the ages
of 40 and 70 years were supplemented
with a placebo, with 20 mg of PQQ
daily, or with 20 mg of PQQ along with
300 mg of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). The
results showed improvements on tests
of higher cognitive function in the PQQ
group compared to the placebo group.
In the PQQ + CoQ10 group, results
were even greater; this may be a result
of the fact that both PQQ and CoQ10
are involved in energy metabolism in
Mitochondria are the cellular
organelles that manufacture the
body’s energy “currency,” ATP. In
laboratory research, PQQ was shown
to stimulate mitochondrial activity. In
fact, PQQ stimulate mitochondrial
biogenesis, suggesting that it may
be beneficial in diseases associated
with mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, research in mice showed
that those supplemented with PQQ
had 20 to 30 percent more mitochondria
than PQQ-deficient mice.
The importance of PQQ to immune
health is evident when it is omitted from
chemically defined diets, resulting in
compromised immune responsiveness. Specifically, PQQ deprivation results in
a reduction in interleukin-2 (IL-2), a loss
of B- and T-cell sensitivity to mitogens. Conversely, oral supplementation
of PQQ increases the responsiveness
of B- and T-cells to mitogens
(chemical substances that encourage a
cell to commence cell division).
Micro Calibrated PQQ-SR formulated for enhanced Bioavailability
MicroPQQ® is a specially formulated PQQ preparation that combines
a bioadhesive polymer, natural wax, and J3-cyclodextrin to enhance
dissolution and absorption in the human body, leading to higher levels of
availability. In a dissolution test, the dissolution profile shows
a sustained release of PQQ from the MicroActive® formulation. By 121
minutes, 95% of the dose was in solution in a micronized form, with less
than a 10-micron particle size. With the control PQQ powder, 100% of
the dose was in solution by 360 minutes.
The MicroActive formulation
may enhance the beneficial effects in vivo by enabling the serum levels
to be maintained for a longer time. This was shown in a bioavailability
clinical study in two healthy subjects using MicroPQQ formulation and
PQQ powder with doses equivalent to 40 mg of PQQ.
The uptake of PQQ from MicroPQQ reached
a maximum blood level at 2 hours, followed by sustained release for
up to 9 hours. The plasma levels remained high at 9 hours, indicating
a sustained release longer than 9 hours. In contrast, the control PQQ
powder showed a maximum blood level at 2 hours and the plasma level
was back to baseline by 9 hours. The average area under the curve for
MicroPQQ was 69.66, whereas the control PQQ was only half as much,
with a value of 31.41. The ratio of the area under the curve (sustained
plasma concentrations) of MicroActive to the control PQQ was 2.2
Human studies: improvement of cerebral function and
The effect of PQQ on cerebral function and anti-stress activity was
tested in 71 human subjects over a 12-week period (Nakano, 2009). The
double-blind, placebo-controlled study used 20 mg of PQQ and 20 mg
of PQQ with 100 mg of CoQ10 in the form of a test food. PQQ exerted
an improvement in cerebral function, and improvements were found
in high-level cerebral functions, including attention and information discriminating
and processing abilities, more so than of memory.
and PQQ with CoQ10 improved high-level cerebral functions in healthy
middle-aged and older adults.
The metabolic effects of PQQ were investigated with dosages ranging
from 0 to 40 mg per day (Harris, 2013). Decreases in levels of
C-reactive protein (CRP) of 10–40% on average occurred, though the
pretreatment values were considered normal. CRP was dramatically
lowered in male subjects by almost 90% on average. Plasma mDNA levels
were elevated following treatment, indicating increases in mitochondria
synthesis. The physiological responses from PQQ were with doses that
were on average 30 mg per day or lower.
A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel study was undertaken to
see how PQQ could improve memory and other measures of cognitive
function in subjects ages 50 to 70 experiencing forgetfulness. Subjects
took PQQ alone, PQQ with CoQ10, or placebo for 24 weeks (Koikeda,
2011). They were evaluated using a test assessment of neuropsychological
status. The study found that PQQ taken either alone or with CoQ10
had the potential to prevent or even reverse cognitive decline. PQQ
improved not only immediate memory but also other higher brain
functions such as spatial awareness.
Seventeen adult male and female subjects participated in a clinical
trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a 20-mg dose of PQQ on stress,
fatigue, quality of life, and sleep. They ingested 20 mg of PQQ daily for
8 weeks. All six measures of vigor, fatigue, tension-anxiety, depression,
anger-hostility, and confusion were significantly improved following
PQQ administration compared with before use. Measures for quality
of life, appetite, sleep, obsession, and pain also improved significantly.
Significant improvement in sleepiness at awakening, sleep onset and
maintenance, and sleep duration was found. The changes in these global
scores were correlated with decreases in cortisol (Nakano, 2012).
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